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Textbook of Pharmacology, Pathology and Genetics Vol 1 and 2

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    This textbook is precisely written as per the syllabus of Indian Nursing Council for BSc Nursing program.

    Simple and lucid content on the current concepts and principles of pharmacology, pathology and genetics.

    Applied, user-friendly and self-explanatory textbook. An example-oriented book, transforms the knowledge of pharmacology, pathology and genetics into nursing practices. Highly illustrated to facilitate quick review and recall important concepts. Authentic content reviewed by a panel of experts.

    Contents

    Volume 1: PHARMACOLOGY

    Introduction to Pharmacology 5
    Introduction
    Terms and Definitions
    Sources of Drugs
    Systems of Measurement
    Calculations of Doses 9
    Forms of Drugs 9
    Routes of Drug Administration 10
    Pharmacokinetics 14
    Pharmacodynamics 17
    Indian Pharmacopeia (IP) 21
    Drug Laws 21
    Schedules of Drugs 22
    Rational Use of Drugs 23
    Chemotherapy 25
    Introduction 25
    Classification of Antimicrobials 25
    Characteristics of Ideal Antimicrobial Drug 27
    Basic Pharmacodynamics of Antimicrobial Drugs 27
    Antimicrobial Drug Interactions and Drug Combination 29
    Bacterial Susceptibility and Sensitivity to Antibiotics 30
    Antimicrobial Resistance 30
    Types of Antimicrobial Therapy 31
    Factors Affecting Antimicrobial Selection 32
    Rational use of Drug/Principle of Antimicrobial Therapy 35
    Problems that Arise with the use of Antimicrobials 36
    Causes for Failure of Chemotherapy 36
    Superinfection 37
    Chemoprophylaxis 37
    Probiotics 38
    xviii Textbook of Pharmacology, Pathology and Genetics for Nurses
    General Nursing Implications while using Antimicrobials 38
    Beta-Lactams and b-Lactam Related Agents 39
    Sulfonamides 54
    Quinolones 58
    Tetracycline 61
    Chloramphenicol 64
    Aminoglycoside 66
    Macrolide Antibiotics 69
    Glycopeptide Antibiotic: Vancomycin 71
    Oxazolidinone 73
    Lincosamide Antibiotic: Clindamycin 75
    Polypeptides 76
    Urinary Antiseptics 78
    Antimalarial Drugs 79
    Antihelminthic Drugs 84
    Antiscabies Agents 87
    Antiviral Drugs 89
    Antifungal Drugs 98
    Antituberculosis Drugs 103
    Antileprosy Drugs 112
    Anticancer Drugs 116
    Composition, Action, Dosage, Route, Indications, Contraindications, Drug Interactions, Side Effects, Adverse Effects Toxicity and Role of Nurse
    3. Antiseptics, Disinfectants and Insecticides 123
    Introduction 123
    Antiseptics and Disinfectants 123
    Commonly used Antiseptics And Disinfectants 127
    Phenol and Others 130
    Composition, Action, Dosage, Route, Indications, Contraindications, Drug Interactions, Side Effects, Adverse Effects Toxicity and Role of Nurse
    4. Drugs Acing on Gastrointestinal System 132
    Antacids 132
    Histamine Type 2 (H2) Antagonists 134
    Proton Pump Inhibitors 137
    Mucosal Protective Agents 139
    Prostaglandin Analog 141
    Contents xix
    Anticholinergics/Antimuscarinic 142
    Antimicrobial Agents (Anti-Helicobacter Pylori Drugs) 143
    Emetics 145
    Antiemetics 146
    Antidiarrheal Drugs 150
    Newer Strategies to Control Diarrhea 155
    Purgatives 156
    Fluids and Electrolytes 159
    Composition, Action, Dosage, Route, Indications, Contraindications, Drug Interactions, Side Effects, Adverse Effects Toxicity and Role of Nurse
    5. Drugs used on Respiratory System 161
    Antiasthmatics 161
    Bronchodilators 161
    Mast Cell Stabilizers 170
    Leukotriene Antagonists 172
    Corticosteroids 174
    Anti-Ige Antibody 179
    Mucolytics 180
    Nasal Decongestants 186
    Expectorant 188
    Antitussives 190
    Bronchoconstrictors 196
    Antihistamines 200
    Composition, Action, Dosage, Route, Indications, Contraindications, Drug Interactions, Side Effects, Adverse Effects Toxicity and Role of Nurse
    6. Drugs used on Urinary System 206
    Diuretics 206
    Antidiuretics 213
    Urinary Antiseptics 218
    Acidifiers 220
    Alkalinizers 223
    Composition, Action, Dosage, Route, Indications, Contraindications, Drug Interactions, Side Effects, Adverse Effects Toxicity and Role of Nurse
    7. Miscellaneous Drugs 227
    Drugs used in De-Addiction 227
    Drugs used in Emergencies 228
    xx Textbook of Pharmacology, Pathology and Genetics for Nurses
    Vitamins 231
    Minerals 235
    Immunosuppressants 237
    Immunestimulants 239
    Vaccines and Sera 240
    Management of Common Poisoning 243
    Treatment of Snake Bite 248
    Food Poisoning 249
    Vaccines and Sera (Immunization Schedules, General Principles of Treatment of Poisoning, Antidotes, Treatment of Snake Bite Poisoning and Antivenom)
    8. Drugs used on Skin and Mucous Membranes 252
    Emollients 252
    Demulcents 252
    Adsorbants and Protectives 252
    Caustics and Escharotics 252
    Astringents 253
    Counter-Irritants 253
    Keratolytics 253
    Antiseborrheics 253
    Melanizing Agents 253
    Drugs for Acnevulgaris 254
    Nursing Responsibilities 255
    Composition, Action, Dosage, Route, Indications, Contraindications, Drug Interactions, Side Effects, Adverse Effects Toxicity and Role of Nurse
    9. Drugs Acting on Nervous System 256
    Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Anti Pyretic–Analgesics 256
    Non-Selective Cox Inhibitors 257
    Preferential Cox-2 Inhibitors 260
    Selective Cox Inhibitors 261
    Analgesic-Antipyretics with Poor Anti-Inflammatory Action 261
    Opioid Analgesics 262
    Sedative-Hypnotics 265
    Anesthesia 268
    General Anesthesia 268
    Local Anesthetics 273
    Cholinergic Drugs 277
    Contents xxi
    Indirect Acting Cholinergic Drugs 277
    Guanidine 281
    Cholinergic Drugs used in Gi System and Urinary System 282
    Anticholinergics 283
    Natural Alkaloids 286
    Semisynthetic Alkaloids 287
    Synthetic Alkaloids 288
    Muscle Relaxants 290
    Peripherally Acting Muscle Relaxants 290
    Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxants 297
    Antipsychotics 299
    Antidepressants 307
    Antianxiety Drugs 313
    Anticonvulsants 320
    Adrenergic Drugs 326
    Nasal Decongestants 329
    Bronchodilator 330
    Smooth Muscle Relaxants 331
    Cns Stimulants 331
    Mood Stabilizers 332
    Stimulants 336
    Antiparkinsoniam Drugs 358
    Composition, Action, Dosage, Route, Indications, Contraindications, Drug Interactions, Side Effects, Adverse Effects Toxicity and Role of Nurse
    10. Cardiovascular Drugs 362
    Haematinics 362
    Iron 362
    Vitamin B12 369
    Folic Acid 372
    Cardiac Glycosides 374
    Drugs used in Angina Pectoris 378
    Antiarrhythmic Drugs 383
    Antihypertensive Drugs 392
    Diuretics 393
    Calcium Channel Blockers 399
    Sympatholytic Drugs 401
    xxii Textbook of Pharmacology, Pathology and Genetics for Nurses
    Ace Inhibitors 412
    Angiotensin–II Antagonist 414
    Renin Inhibitors 416
    Vasodilators 416
    Nitrates 421
    Coagulants 425
    Anticoagulants 427
    Hypolipidemics 436
    Antiplatelets 440
    Thrombolytic (Fibrinolytics) 448
    Plasma Expanders 452
    Composition, Action, Dosage, Route, Indications, Contraindications, Drug Interactions, Side Effects, Adverse Effects Toxicity and Role of Nurse
    11. Drugs used for Hormonal, Disorders and Supplementation, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy 460
    Hormone 460
    Hypoglycemic Agents 462
    Insulin 463
    Oral Hypoglycemic Agents 471
    Thyroid Drugs 478
    Thyroid Inhibitors 480
    Steroids 483
    Adrenal Steroid Inhibitor 490
    Anabolic Steroids 491
    Uterine Stimulants and Relaxants 493
    Oxytocin 493
    Ergot Derivatives 496
    Prostaglandins 498
    Uterine Relaxants (Tocolytics) 501
    Magnesium Sulfate 503
    Hormonal Contraceptives 503
    Estrogen and Progestrone 510
    Gonadotropins 519
    Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (Acth), Corticotropin 522
    Calcium Salts and Regulators 526
    Vitamin D 530
    Contents xxiii
    Calcitonin 534
    Bisphosphonates 536
    Composition, Actions Dosage Route Indications Contraindications, Drugs Interactions, Side Effects, Adverse, Effects, Adverse Effects, Toxicity and Role of Nurse
    12. Introduction to Drugs used in Alternative Systems of Medicine 540
    Introduction 540
    Ayurveda 540
    Siddha System 542
    Homeopathy 544
    Unani System 545
    Yoga 546
    Naturopathy 547
    Department of Ayush under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare 547
    Volume 2: PATHOLOGY and GENETICS

    Division A: Pathology
    Section 1: General Pathology
    13. Introduction to Pathology 555
    Introduction 555
    Definition of Pathology 555
    Basic Terminologies in Pathology 555
    Subdivisions of Pathology 556
    Importance of Pathology in the Nursing Curriculum 557
    14. Methods and Techniques in Pathology 560
    Histopathology (Surgical Pathology) 560
    Autopsy Pathology 563
    Microscopy 563
    Immunofluorescence 565
    Immunohistochemistry 565
    Cytogenetics 565
    Molecular Pathology 566
    Flow Cytometry 566
    xxiv Textbook of Pharmacology, Pathology and Genetics for Nurses
    15. Cellular and tissue Changes 567
    Introduction 567
    Cellular Adaptation 568
    16. Cell injury, Cell Dealth, Regeneration and Healing 573
    Cell Injury 573
    I. Autolysis 576
    II. Necrosis 576
    Gangrene 579
    Pathological Calcification 580
    Intracellular Accumulations/Infiltration 580
    17. Inflammation 583
    Introduction 583
    Acute Inflammation 583
    Chronic Inflammation 587
    18. Regeneration and wound healing 590
    Regeneration 590
    Wound Healing 591
    19. Infectious diseases 595
    Introduction 595
    Techniques for Diagnosing Infectious Agents 595
    Routes of Infection 596
    Categories of Common Infectious Agents 596
    20. Cellular Growth and Neoplasm 599
    Introduction 599
    Neoplasms 599
    Carcinoma In Situ 599
    Nomenclature 600
    Characteristics of Benign and Malignant Tumors 600
    Normal Cells and Cancer Cells 602
    Metastasis 602
    Contents xxv
    Factors Predisposing to Development of Neoplasia 603
    Carcinogenic Agents 604
    Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms 605
    Laboratory Diagnosis 606
    21. Fluid and electrolyte disturbance 608
    Homeostasis 608
    Disturbances in Fluid Balance 609
    Disturbances in Electrolyte Balance 611
    Abnormalities in PH of Blood 612
    22. Disorders of immune System 614
    Introduction 614
    Types of Immunity 614
    Components of Immune Response 614
    Disorders of Immune System 614
    Hypersensitivity Reactions 615
    Autoimmune Diseases 616
    Immunodeficiency Disorders 616
    Section 2: Systemic Pathology
    23. Respiratory system 618
    Tuberculosis 618
    Pleural Effusion 620
    Pneumonia 623
    Lung Abscess 627
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 629
    Tumors of Lungs 636
    24. Cardiovascular system 640
    Pericardial Effusion 640
    Rheumatic Heart Disease 641
    Endocarditis 644
    Atherosclerosis 646
    Infarction 650
    Aneurysm 651
    xxvi Textbook of Pharmacology, Pathology and Genetics for Nurses
    25. Gastrointestinal System 657
    Peptic Ulcer Disease 657
    Typhoid Fever or Enteric Fever 660
    Carcinoma of Gastrointestinal Tract 662
    Buccal Carcinoma 662
    Esophageal Carcinoma 663
    Tumors of Stomach 665
    Tumors of Small and Large Intestine 669
    26. Liver, Gallbladder and Pancreas 676
    Hepatitis 676
    Chronic Liver Abscess 680
    Cirrhosis 681
    Tumors of Liver 686
    Carcinoma of Gallbladder 688
    Tumors of Pancreas 689
    Cholecystitis 690
    27. Kidney and urinary system 694
    Glomerulonephritis 694
    Secondary Glomerular Disease 699
    Pyelonephritis 701
    Urinary Calculi 704
    Renal Failure 706
    Tumors of Kidney 708
    Cystitis 711
    28. Male reproductive system 715
    Cryptorchidism 715
    Testicular Atrophy 717
    Prostatic Hyperplasia 717
    Carcinoma of Penis 720
    Carcinoma of Prostate 721
    29. Female reproductive system 723
    Fibroids (Uterine Leiomyomas) 723
    Contents xxvii
    Carcinoma Cervix
    Endometrial Cancer
    Vesicular Mole (Hydatidiform Mole)
    Choriocarcinoma
    Ectopic Gestation
    Ovarian Cysts
    Ovarian Cancer
    Breast Cancer
    30. Central Nervous system
    Hydrocephalus
    Meningitis
    Encephalitis
    Thrombosis
    Embolism
    Stroke
    Paraplagia
    Quadriplegia
    Cns Tumors
    Metastatic Tumors
    31. Skeletal system
    Bones
    Osteoporosis
    Osteomyelitis
    Osteoarthritis
    Bone Tumors
    Section 3: Clinical Pathology
    32. Blood and bone marrow tests
    Blood Tests
    Hemoglobin
    Blood Cell Counts
    Hemogram
    Bleeding Time, Clotting Time and Prothrombin Time
    xxviii Textbook of Pharmacology, Pathology and Genetics for Nurses
    Blood Grouping and Crossmatching
    Blood Biochemistry
    Blood Gases
    Disturbance in Acid-Base Balance
    Blood Culture
    Bone Marrow Examination
    Serological and Immunological Tests and Other Blood Tests
    Specimen Collection for Laboratory Analysis
    33. Body cavity fluids, transudates and exudates tests
    Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis
    Examination of Sputum
    Analysis of Gastric Constituents
    Analysis of Duodenal Contents
    Analysis of Peritoneal Fluid
    Analysis of Pericardial Fluid
    Analysis of Semen
    Transudates and Exudates
    34. Urine and Feces Analysis
    Urine Examination
    Fecal Examination
    Division B: Genetics

    35. Introduction to Genetics
    Introduction
    Concept of Genetics
    Basic Genetic Terms
    Practical Applications of Genetics in Nursing
    Impact of Genetic Conditions on Families
    Review of Cellular Division
    Genes
    Protein Biosynthesis
    Genetic Code
    Naming Genes
    Contents xxix
    Chromosome
    Chromosomal Aberrations Chromosomal Mutation
    Mechanism of Inheritance
    Laws of Inheritance
    Autosomal Dominant
    Autosomal Recessive
    Sex-Linked Inheritance
    Codominant Pattern of Inheretance
    Mitochondrial Pattern of Inheritance
    Multifactororial Pattern of Inheritance
    Facts About Transmission of Genetic Disorders
    Multiple Allots and Blood Groups
    Gene Mutation (Errors of Transmission)
    Reduced Penetrance and Variable Expressivity
    Anticipation
    36. Emerging Paradigm of Genetics in Nursing
    Ntroduction
    Genetic Nursing Practice Milestones
    Roles of Nurses in Genetics 891
    Importance of Genetics in Nursing Curriculum
    Barriers and Approaches for Implementation of Genetics in Nursing
    Assumptions Regarding Genetics and Health Care in Future
    37. Maternal and Prenatal Genetics
    Introduction
    Genetics and Infection
    Consanguinity Atopy
    Prenatal Nutrition and Food Allergies
    Role of Prenatal Nutrition in Prevention of Genetic Disorders
    Maternal Age
    Maternal Drug Therapy
    Effects of Radiation, Drugs and Chemicals
    Prenatal Testing and Diagnosis
    Non-Invasive Tests
    Invasive Tests
    xxx Textbook of Pharmacology, Pathology and Genetics for Nurses
    Preimplantation Prenatal Diagnosis
    Infertility
    Spontaneous Abortions
    Neural Tube Defects (Ntd)
    Down Syndrome
    38. Neonatal and Children Testing or Screening
    Introduction
    Meaning and Purpose
    Newborn Screening
    Genetic Testing and Screening in Children
    Congenital Abnormalities
    Developmental Delay
    Dysmorphism
    Role of Nurses in Genetic Testing for Neonates and Children
    39. Genetic Conditions of Adolescents and Adults
    Genetic Statistics
    Naming Genetic Conditions
    Common Genetic Conditions Discussed in Chapter
    Cancer Genetics: Familial Cancer
    Inborn Errors of Metabolism
    Phenylketonuria
    Maple Syrup Urine Disease
    Gaucher’ Disease
    Blood Group Alleles and Hematological Disorders
    Genetic Hemochromatosis
    Huntington’s Disease
    Mental Illness
    Therapeutic Approaches for Genetic Disorders
    Nursing Management in Genetic Disorders
    40. Services Related to Genetics
    Introduction
    Genetic Testing
    Human Genome Project
    Contents xxxi
    The Genomic Era
    Gene Therapy
    Eugenic Movement
    Genetic Counseling
    Pharmacogenomics
    Glossary
    Terms Related to Pathology
    Terms Related to Genetics
    Index

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