This book is specially designed for the mechanical and production streams of B.E./B. Tech students. It is also a handy reference textbook for those interested in metallurgy. This book focuses on the fundamentals of physical metallurgy including crystal structure and imperfections, phase equilibria, phase transformations and heat treatment. Failure and corrosion properties of materials have been discussed in detail. A detailed discussion of magnetism, conductors and semiconductors is the asset of this book. The book also highlights the optical properties, diffusion, chemical bonding, non-conventional energy resources, ceramics and composites. Appendix I contains a collection of reference tables. Multiple-choice questions, short-answer-type questions, long-answer-type questions and numerical problems are provided in Appendix II of this book as exercise for students.